1856 - Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist and the founding father of psychoanalysis.
1868 - Gaston Leroux
French journalist and author of detective fiction, best known as the author of the novel The Phantom of the Opera.
1902 - Harry Lewis Golden
Jewish American journalist and author who wrote satirically on race relations.
1904 - Harry Martinson
Swedish sailor, author and poet; Joint winner of the 1974 Nobel Prize in Literature (with Eyvind Johnson) for "writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos."
1910 - Leo Lionni
Netherlands-born author and illustrator of children's books; four-time Caldecott award winner.
1914 - Randall Jarrell
American poet and author; U.S. Poet Laureate from 1956-1958.
1915 - Theodore H. White
American political journalist, best known for his work in China and for his Making of the President series.
1935 - Ted Lewin
American children's book author and illustrator, whose Peppe the Lamplighter won a Caldecott Honor in 1994.
1950 - Jeffrey Deaver
American mystery and crime writer, known for his Lincoln Rhyme series as well as for his one James Bond novel.
1862 - Henry David Thoreau
1902 - Bret Harte
1919 - L. Frank Baum
1949 - Maurice Maeterlink
1983 - Ezra Jack Keats